have heard much in lectures this week about the resources,
the early writings, and the ecumenical and missionary
approaches to archives that are available for our
understanding of history. These have been viewed from
both within our region, from the standpoint of our
own culture and place, and as seen through missionary
eyes. Today we will ground these more within the archival
What are archives? Refer also to chapter 8 in Ministering
Asian Faith and Wisdom: A Manual for Theological Librarians
in Asia. (Manila: New Day Publishers; Delhi ISPCK,
Firstly – what do we understand by the word
archives? Archives are both depositories where collections
of unpublished, one-of-a-kind – unique - materials
are preserved for their research value, and the materials
themselves thus preserved. According to the Oxford
Dictionary, an archive is both “a place in which
public records or historical documents are kept”
and “a historical record or document so preserved.”
An archivist is the keeper of the archives, the caretaker
of the historical records, and also the discoverer
of deep meaning in such historical materials.
As I have already suggested, the archive we build
has long-term goals and is developed to be a permanent
institution. A well-founded collection of archives
will continue to benefit your college, church or community
far beyond your own work as archivist. The policies
you, and your support committee, put in place therefore
have a lasting significance. The shape of your work,
its aims and goals, the policies you develop, the
focus or bias you establish will have long-term implications
and values, both to historical research and informed
decision-making in your country and perhaps beyond.
are of course many different sources for archives
– files, or accumulations of old documents,
pictures or correspondence in attic or basement; old
relics, inscriptions, carvings or artefacts in storehouses,
memorials or cemeteries; public and corporate records
(often already referred to as “archives”)
generated by governments or businesses or institutions,
and private papers and records (usually described
as “manuscripts”) created by individuals.
An archive may be an individual item or a collection
which is built up systematically as in the church
minute book or letter file, series of statements,
records of a college or ministerial training centre.
This corporate material is viewed as a unit in itself.
Note that genuine archives record history as it is
being made. They provide a close and contemporary
picture of the past. They are an official record of
religious life and witness, and so that today's decisions
can be informed, far-reaching decisions. They are
a cultural resource, as important as parks, monuments
and buildings. They feed personal awareness of history
and the necessary background of an institution or
group of people. At best they are an efficient, accessible
and treasured means of holding records.
will be obvious that in determining what should be
kept, the archivist needs the help of a historian
or other professional, preferably one who well understands
the subject focus of the archive. Together they will
preserve the records valuable to historical research
and present experience. In preserving records useful
for research and awareness in a variety of fields,
the archivist acts as an intermediary between official
records and the scholar. This is a special ministry
and where possible of course a specialist archivist
should be employed for this ministry.
For whom is an archival centre developed?
This is a basic question which must be asked again
and again is “For whom is the archive developed?”
For our church.
You will remember we spoke of the work of Herbert
Swanson, and his colleagues in the Church of Christ
in Thailand, whose archival centre became the nucleus
of the Payap University Archives. Swanson’s
comment was “That the archives could serve the
academic world was not at all a ‘bad thing,’
but that role did not fulfil its central purpose as
a church archives, which was to collect, preserve,
and provide access to historical materials to the
substantial benefit of the work and life of the church.”
For the life and work of the church therefore could
be one reason for an archival collection.
Our own history.
You will remember, too, that we spoke of how differently
the history of an area can be told when different
sources for that history are used. The two students
from Ethiopia who wrote their doctoral theses - the
one using oral history interviews made with local
people and the other using archival holdings of letters
and reports written by missionaries from overseas.
Both these sources of knowledge provide understanding
of ourselves and of our history, but too often we
rely on the written word alone. So the question becomes
more insistent. Are we gathering together materials
for our archive for academic recognition or excellence,
or so that we can all know our identity and history,
and learn from it as we make decisions and exercise
faith for the future?
Our theological understanding.
Theological understanding and the development of Christian
knowledge, always grows out of something which has
gone before. Creative theologians have built on the
study and teaching of their forebears in the faith
to develop far reaching programmes for their people.
Others have studied folk practices and belief alongside
biblical material and church history in order to clarify
Christian life and witness for today. For one example
out of many, one theologian has recently taken the
Chinese understanding of the dragon and its ability
to bring order out of chaos and studied this in contrast
with Hebrew images of the dragon, bringing a fuller
faith understanding to his people. Here is an example
of thus enlarging Christian understanding through
archival or traditional story. Many more have emerged
in the work of e.g. CCA, FABC, PTCA and CATS.
Many peoples today have had their whole lives turned
upside-down - whether through colonial occupation,
displacement through warfare, dictatorial governments,
movements of populations looking for work. We can
look at old, now become new, countries finding themselves
again after the breakup of Russia’s empire –
or we can look at places within our own region like
Burma/Myanma, Indonesia, divided Korea, multi-ethnic
Malaysia or Fiji along with many other countries and
situations. People finding themselves, their identity,
within such situations as these is of vital importance
and another reason for an archive. One’s original
identity is fundamental, and any form of evidence
found in linguistic usage, ritual or custom is a part
of that process. The dialect, the use of certain phrases
or words, imagery and thought-forms all help in the
search for identity. Folk-literature, the memories
of our old people, and fragments of letters, prayers
or inscriptions are similarly most valuable for the
nurture of our own identity.
actual documentation has been lost or never existed,
with subsequent damage to a people’s identity.
When asking for whom the archival collection is being
gathered, for what purpose, we must also recognise
that many of our people still live in an oral culture,
and certainly very few are accustomed to using written
research materials, let alone electronic ones.
are still many other sources of archival reference
however and some of these will be referred to below.
Let us look at the adventure of Gathering and rescuing
archival material – which we are joining. In
this we should be proactive. I have selected some
stories to show both the adventure of archive collection
and the dangers we may meet in this pilgrimage.
Xuan Zang (Hsuen-tsang)
The classic scholar-librarian in our region who undertook
the arduous task of acquiring archives and the wisdom
they held was Xuan Zang (Hsuen-tsang), a Buddhist
pilgrim from China who journeyed across Central Asia
to India in 629-630, returning in 644 with a caravan
of books, mostly copies of scriptures, art and relics.
In 652 he had a five-story pagoda built to house them
at Da Yan Ta (Big Goose Pagoda) in Xi-an (Sian), then
the capital of China and situated in north-west China.
He then began to translate these books and scriptures.
Compare our search for archival material, our inheriting
of historical church records, our encouraging the
deposit of personal documents and manuscripts, or
our concern with budgets, with this journey of Xuan
Zang. He was met by kings at various stages on his
return route, hosted in monasteries while teaching
and studying along the way, welcomed in some districts
by waving flags and banners, in others with incense,
and offered elephants to ride on in triumphant procession!
And yet the books and documents we seek today in Asia
and the Pacific are no less worthy of such excitement
Xuan Zang's pilgrimage is one of numberless such journeys,
many of them undertaken by Christians of the Churches
of the East in the first millenium, between Persia,
Syria, Turkestan, India, central and south China,
Mongolia, Korea, Japan, and "further India"
(that is, south east Asia). Libraries were developing
in many parts of the region, especially at Buddhist
centres, but also at Christian monasteries and churches,
on the maritime or land trading routes across Asia,
from the earliest Christian centuries onwards. Many
of these libraries, or parts of them, remain and amongst
their contents are the earliest extant writings of
Asian Christians, some dating from the second century,
along with rich collections from the next thousand
years. Many writings from Persia for instance, have
been found in India, Turkestan or China, and some
Turkestani Christian writings have reached as far
east as Kyoto, in Japan. What a wealth of very early
archival material is represented here!
And archives may be found in unexpected places. Let
me introduce you to 2 women, known as the 'Giblews'
- Mrs Gibson and Mrs Lewis. Their portraits are on
the wall of Westminster College, Cambridge as they
provided funds for this seminary. They are possibly
the only women featured on the walls of Cambridge
colleges! They were twin sisters, Scottish, Presbyterian,
who married late in life and were widowed early. They
were self-educated and inherited wealth from their
merchant father. They loved to travel. On one journey
after many weeks on camel and foot they reached St
Catherine's monastery in Sinai where they knew there
was a rich source of uncatalogued Syriac (similar
to Aramaic) writings. However the big find was a 'butter
dish'! They were such expert linguistic scholars (Hebrew,
Arabic, Syriac, and other languages) that they were
able to recognise that the writing on this piece of
parchment, put to use to hold the butter, was of very
old texts which took the sources for the New Testament
back some centuries. In fact this was a fragment of
a very early Syriac version of the gospels in the
form of palimpsests (parchment pages used a second
time after an attempt to erase earlier writing) –
the Syriac Sinaiticus, from the 4th century. Using
the teapot to separate the pages, they began to decipher
the texts on these pages, and eventually found 358
damaged pages in a basement basket. They were able
to persuade the monks of the value of their find and
to preserve these amazing documents. The importance
of their work is internationally recognised and the
original palimpsests are stored under strict archival
conditions in the tower of Westminster College. Their
story is told in The Ladies of Castlebrae by A Whigham
The search for early history may be prompted from
small clues and most exciting discoveries are still
In his book The Nestorian Documents and Relics in
China (1951), P.Y. Saeki includes an ancient a map
of an early centre of Christianity in west-central
China. Using this map, Martin Palmer and a team of
researchers made three attempts to search for this
early place of worship. In 1988 they eventually discovered
a pagoda which seemed to be somewhere near the right
area. In talking with local people he was told that
no, this was a Buddhist Pagoda, so they began to turn
away. The elderly woman they were talking to then
said “Oh, but it was Taoist before that”.
However that was still not what they were looking
for. But they were mystified because of the alignment
of the building, its feng seui, was not right for
a Taoist building. Then the woman told them that earlier
still it had been a Christian place of worship, that
everyone in the village knew that, and would they
like to see for themselves! Upon entering they were
astounded to find many wall paintings, documents and
statuary which could only have been of Christian origin.
The Chinese government is now preserving this temple
and Palmer has published the story along with writings
found there in The Jesus Sutras.
Philip Gibbs works in Papua New Guinea, particularly
with the Enga people. Many records have been lost
or are inaccessible to these people for a variety
of reasons. Gibbs has therefore set up several projects
to ‘rescue the memory’ of these people
and one of these was to collect Enga proverbs. The
collection now stands at over a thousand proverbs
and sayings and contains an important dimension of
Enga culture that was in danger of being forgotten.
Gibbs has also arranged for the life stories of local,
mostly elderly, people to be recorded and taped. He
has developed week-long faith and culture workshops
during which participants are encouraged to reflect
on life topics, the rituals of everyday living, of
childhood, courtship and marriage, domestic life,
religious life, conflicts and reconciliation, aging
and death. And he has also begun a video documentation
centre to preserve a photographic record for the future.
In our own situation we can see that some of those
who created that history may often be still alive,
or may personally still remember those who have died.
It is a personal story passed on from teller to teller.
It is a reminiscence, it may be in a newly found diary,
a suitcase filled with old, yellowing letters and
documents under someone's bed. Often librarians who
are custodians of such materials are called upon to
define and redefine history, separating – at
least to some extent - myth from history and some
of the memories from reality. There are corroborated
facts, but also reminiscence, anecdote, life story,
and folk memory, and all are worth preserving. Oral
history, preserving and sharing the story, by whatever
means are available and appropriate, are the urgent
tasks for us today.
But what of the loss and destruction of archives?
Again you will look more at this in later sessions
but it is important to note also now.
Archival documents may of course be lost through a
natural disasters or warfare. To prevent this much
forethought and planning is required. At the time
of a flood for instance there is no time to decide
what to do to save your repository! Yet some remarkable
repositories hidden away at times of disaster or civil
unrest have been saved through careful and secure
storage. Amongst many examples would be the Benedictine
archives at Monte Casino, Italy, (1944-45) or early
documents of the Church of the East at Dunhuang and
Turfan (1053!). Sadly many other priceless materials,
including those of western centres, have been irretrievably
lost over the centuries. Within Asia the Jaffna library,
in Sri Lanka, was largely destroyed just recently
through civil unrest and Ambon Christian University
library is another example just this year. Some materials
are lost through a combination of neglect, extreme
climates, humidity, and the depredations of dirt and
insects. Some have been lost just because of carelessness.
Many copies of church records for example were recently
destroyed when a Hong Kong library moved its premises.
Those then making decisions did not know of or care
for the importance of these documents and discarded
them. So continuing vigilance is required once an
archival collection is begun.
But here is a success story of lost and found records
Dr James Ng, a New Zealand Chinese Christian, published
a 4 volume Chinese history in 1993 called Windows
on a Chinese Past. The volumes provide a first in-depth
social history of Cantonese immigrants to Otago's
gold fields and the details of the lives of more than
3,000 Chinese gold miners, documented over 20 years.
They also tell the stories of violence and prejudice
that prevailed for more than two generations. This
largely untold story can now be told because of the
meticulous recordings of Presbyterian missionaries
- and because of the perseverance of Dr Ng! In fact
in May of this year a ceremony was held to right some
of the wrongs suffered by these people, as a result
of Dr. Ng’s work.
The primary sources of information were the salvaged
writings of the Rev'd Alexander Don, who worked among
the Chinese gold miners in southern New Zealand from
1879 to 1912, and the Rev'd George McNeur who formed
the Canton Villages Mission in 1901 as a result of
that work. The treasure trove included three of Don's
complete diaries and fragments of others, and the
diaries and collections of more than 100 photographs
taken by McNeur.
But even more historically significant was Dr Ng's
discovery, among a pile of discarded old books in
the Church's national offices, of a bilingual register
written by Don giving the names, origins and personal
details of about 3,500 Chinese gold miners. Dr Ng
had the register photocopied at a national archival
centre. The original was to be stored at the church's
theological college's library, but it disappeared
during a purge when the library was later renovated!
He wrote to the newspaper about it and was approached
by a former student who had bought it for 50 cents!
Now it is locked in a bank vault for posterity! The
contents of this valuable register form 220 facsimile
pages in one of the volumes of Windows on a Chinese
Past, and are now available to all.
Dr Ng reflects: "It has given me a perspective
on how frail and transitory our lives are here. Inevitably
if you are looking at history you are looking at death,
religion and faith - and that has strengthened my
links with the church. In the short term there were
many negative features in the church's mission to
the Chinese, yet in the long term God's will was done.
[God's] time scale is not ours."
Such stories as this highlight many issues, both good
and bad, that are important to a discussion of archives.
Let me summarize:
- A local story is being rediscovered.
- It is bigger than a local story because in significance
it moves across national boundaries.
- We must make allies of chance and diligent searching.
- The keeping of notebooks and photographs form an
integral part of the detective story in uncovering
- The importance of making a professional copy of
- The pitfalls of purging library collections.
- The persistence of the true researcher.
- The publishing of the record so that all can have
You may have your own stories of such disasters, or
you may be adding to the story of valuable finds!
There are many other stories of archival documents
being rescued. For instance here are two overseas
examples. Correspondence, operational files, legal
documents and financial records which represented
the documentary history of the formation of consciousness
in the Afro-American community in California were
found in a Berkeley landfill, and ephemeral items
and leaflets, along with letters between a young couple
who were interned in Utah during World War II because
they were Japanese-American have been likewise saved
from a rubbish dump. You will know of other stories
from your own countries.
A good place to look for such discarded materials
is in the second-hand shop. A post-card which had
been written from a prisoner held in a World War II
Prisoner of War camp in Germany was only found this
year and delivered to the family concerned! I know
of someone who regularly visited second-hand book
shops in Hong Kong and found many unique archival
treasures there. In fact the shop-keeper can be asked
to put aside items of archival value that come in
for sale, so that the archival centre may add these
to the repository.
Many historical records have remained in the hands
of missionaries, or were collected together by them.
These were mostly sent back to their home countries,
such as France and Italy, the United States or England
- away from their place of origin. ; Some of the most
useful records available are to be found in the large
mission agency collections, but these are housed overseas,
alas, making them unavailable to local Christians
and others. Many others are still to be found in various
places such as churches, private homes, school or
church hospital records, letter collections, newspaper
entries, or secular repositories, throughout each
country in the region. Such records should be found
But in addition we should consider doing what some
of our theological libraries have done, e.g. in Korea
and India, in negotiating the return of either original
archives or photocopied or microfiche forms of them.
Has this been considered in your particular situation?
Let me repeat - the archives we gather become living
history. These records are the life-blood of the local
and national church's identity. They feed theology
and are essential to the making of informed decisions
on all levels of the church's life. Most important
- the local or regional church, to stand tall on its
own feet, needs this base to root not only its life
and work, but its fuller understanding of itself as
an Asian or Pacific church with a very long history
of its own. They are also the living history of our
You see we are not just learning to cope with what
is ‘landed’ on us by our church or college,
but setting our hands to develop the treasure-house
of archives that the future of our church and college
So what could a collection of archives could look
Archival material and historical writings, take various
forms, and there are many good examples for us to
use and promote. Many early collections are outlined
in Chapter 2 of Ministering Asian Faith and Wisdom.
Let us now look at some of these early libraries and
collections, examples of many others which could be
One of the richest accumulations of early writings
is found in Kerala, south-west India, in the village
of Pampakuda. This is one of eleven libraries of 'medieval'
Asian Christian writing in that state. Here is a library
of early manuscripts cared for by Abraham Konat, 23rd
hereditary priest-librarian for this priceless library
(think of how many hundreds of years that means),
which contains more than 300 books and manuscripts
of writings in Syriac for instance, from the fourth
to the eighth centuries. And they have resisted attempts
to allow their treasures to be siphoned off (or shipped
away) into the British Library!
Amongst these manuscripts in Pampakuda, and in many
other libraries in India, are found the songs, liturgies,
and chronicles of early Indian churches, along with
the letters, homilies and commentaries of such doctors
of the Eastern Church as Ephrem (4th century), Daniel
of Tela (6th century), Timothy I (8th century) and
Bar Hebraeus (13th century).
Near Dunhuang, numerous Buddhist murals and other
relics fill hundreds of caves, and amongst them are
found Christian paintings, books or scrolls. In a
sealed side cave, rediscovered and opened by Aurel
Stein in 1907, were many scrolls – including
those of Christian manuscripts and paintings dating
from the 8th to the 11th centuries and hidden away
in a time of persecution. From these, and many other
areas and sources, in for example the Turfan depression
to the north of the Gobi Desert, we find a rich history
of early Christian presence and understanding of the
faith, and this in 24 distinct languages. (John has
already mentioned examples of the rich theological
understanding, the faith and insight of these Asian
Christians of the desert.)
From Japan comes the story of the Kakure Kirishitan,
Christians who had remained ‘hidden’ for
centuries. These Catholic converts resulting from
the work of Francis Xavier and his colleagues in the
16th century, were persecuted severely for their faith
throughout the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, were
regularly forced to publicly reject Christian images
and belief, and to renounce their faith. Many of these
Christians were martyred because they refused to do
this, but others went into hiding. They kept their
faith hidden for hundreds of years and when Japan
again opened to western trade, Catholic missionaries
were surprised to find people retaining much of the
Christian faith. The stories, manuscripts and artifacts
of these Kakure Kirishitan are still being discovered
and studied, and give an excellent picture of a life
lived by these ancestors in the faith during times
of such persecution and separation from their fellow
Many of these documents are listed in the 560-page
bibliography compiled by Laures
Another way of recording archival history of a people
is found in a Hong Kong Archive. An archivist and
historian, the Rev'd Carl T. Smith, a long-time citizen
of Hong Kong, has collected an impressive archive
of Hong Kong Chinese families and church life. He
started this collection because library material on
Hong Kong Christian history represented only the voices
of the missionaries. Over many years of painstaking
research, and good filing practices, he has gradually
built up a picture which has influenced all subsequent
study of Hong Kong and its Christian communities.
The facts are there, they cannot be ignored, and the
true history can be told without bias.
Carl Smith, and other researchers and writers, thus
bring to life past and contemporary history of Christian
communities, along with issues of major importance
for the region. The collection itself has been microfilmed
for regional use and now has worldwide importance.
It has its own unique life and strength because it
is specialised, localised and comprehensive.
Zi-Ka-Wei (Xujiahui) - Shanghai
This became the principle Jesuit library in China
from 1847, although much of its holdings date from
over two centuries earlier. The site was associated
with one of the most scholarly of Ricci's Chinese
colleagues Xu Guangqi (1562-1633). It has become one
of the most valuable collections of Chinese and Western
manuscripts in the world.
In the China section there are five categories - classics,
history, teaching of the Sages, collections and series.
There are 2,000 books and tracts published by Catholic
presses in China prior to 1800 alone! In the Western
section there were thirty-one categories in ten different
In both the Chinese and Western sections of this library
there are unique and rare manuscripts from many centuries
- and are therefore archives. Since 1992 these have
again become available to scholars.
Among many other examples of documentary and archive
collections outlining the story of Christianity are
those of Nicholas Standaert for Christian writings
from China before 1800; William Campbell for archives
of the Protestants in Taiwan in the 17th century;
the M.K. Kuriakose collection of Source Materials
for the History of Christianity in India; Luciano
Santiago’s work on the records of the first
Filipino priests; and most recently the collection
just published by Karel Steenbrink of early Catholic
documents in Indonesia; Allan Davidson AND Peter Lineham
have compiled documents which illustrate aspects of
New Zealand church history in Transplanted Christianity.
A different type of archive takes the form of a museum.
In Flores, eastern Indonesia, along with an extensive
and quite historic library (and Christianity has many
centuries of history in Flores), a very significant
museum of the cultural life of the people of the area
(the Sika people) is attached to the seminary. The
museum has dioramas of village life, historical artefacts,
costume and practices of the people, all vividly portrayed,
and forming an indispensable resource for those studying
theology and ministry within the context of that island
community. It has a full-time curator and is in fact
the most important source for all concerned with Flores
culture. The library's museum supplies information
within and beyond the college, making links to the
The collections of the Korean Christian History Museum
at Soongshil University, Seoul and one found in a
museum at Shimabara in Japan also hold rich sources
of archival materials. At Soongshil University may
be found manuscripts and early printed materials,
carvings, inscriptions, ceramics and other artefacts
dating from the earliest Christian presence in Korea
(possibly as early as the 8th century), while at Shimabara
many artefacts from the history of the hidden Christians
- the Kakure Kirishitan mentioned above - are held.
Amongst these are impoortant manuscripts, metal mirrors
which held in certain lights revealed Christian etchings,
ornamental combs, carved wooden pillows, etched candle
stands, sword hilts or guards, lanterns or padlocks,
hidden moveable panels in the backs of statues of
idols, and statues of the Goddess of Mercy holding
a child, and known as Maria-Kannon.
Remember too that much of our past Christian story,
and the story of our people can be found in documents
of national and supposedly “secular”,
rather than church or mission, history. Clear examples
of this appear in the records of colonial or later
dictatorial regimes – where it has not been
possible to exclude reports of our people’s
struggles or witness. Such “lost” history
and story can also be found by reading the ‘cracks
in the parchment curtain’ (William Henry Scott
of the Philippines coined this phrase), listening
to the silences, studying the gaps in the story for
the reasons behind why a document was written, gathering
the fragments which together provide a significant
understanding of the past.
More recently much archival material will be found
also in multi-media formats, such as videos, photographs,
transparencies, disks, statuary, symbols, music and
art. These of course need special preservation measures,
which will be addressed later in this course. Some
of these have been developed for a particular purpose
such as ensuring the story of protest movements will
not be forgotten, or to be used as a presentation,
or because the author felt this medium would be more
appropriate at the time of creation.
thesis written by a theologian from Fiji was considered
very important. He was encouraged to put this into
book form. However he used the material instead to
produce a series of tapes for broadcasting, which
to him was far more important, as it reached a wider
range of people whose tradition was oral rather than
book-based. We must be able to preserve such materials,
in whatever format, and encourage their continued
Another source to research when looking for archival
materials is in catalogues. Many companies specialise
in rare books which are of archival significance.
And lastly one very important source of archival information
is the People File. This is a file of people who can
be called upon to help with archival information,
a sort of who's who of people with expertise in particular
aspects of Asian and Pacific Christianity or in the
religious and social contexts in which Asians and
Pacific Islanders live. It would include people who
have personal collections of material which form important
repositories of archival information.
A practical “next step” for which further
guidance is available.
Looking further at such gathering of archives today
let us return to the dilemma faced in northern Thailand
regarding for whom the archives were held. In 1988,
the Church of Christ in Thailand founded the Office
of History, which sought to move beyond the custodial
model of information management – then the classic
model for church archives – to a new model that
intended to make local churches the chief beneficiaries
of the Church of Christ in Thailand’s information
new model moved through various stages – from
one of doing research for the churches, to the training
of others to do such research. A turning point was
reached when, during a seven-week local church history
research project, nine Karen tribal seminarians, who
had been studying theology using Thai-language, were
taken back to their Karen context. Using basic oral
history research skills taught by the Office of History,
they interviewed elderly Karen, heard their stories
and accounts of traditional Karen life – the
beauty and importance of their Karen heritage. You
can imagine they returned to the seminary filled with
enthusiasm and dedication.